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Information about FND

Here is a sample of useful articles on FND. This is by no means an exhaustive list, rather just some papers that we have found useful.

A good starting place is the FND volume of the Handbook of Clinical Neurology:

Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol 139 Functional Neurologic Disorders

Hallett M, Stone J, Carson A (eds).  Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 47–60


This textbook is a comprehensive overview on all things FND, including history, epidemiology, phenomenology, assessment and treatment. Individual chapters can be download at most libraries.

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FNDS Website


Members of  the FNDS have access to an enormous back catalogue of webinars from international FND experts. Topics include practical clinical recommendations, research, evidence for treatment, and neuroscience theory.

Annual membership is currently US$75 for AHPs.

Overview Papers

Stone J, Burton C, Carson A (2020) Recognising and explaining functional neurological disorder. BMJ 371:m3745

Espay AJ, Aybek S, Carson A, et al (2018) Current concepts in diagnosis and treatment of functional neurological disorders. JAMA Neurol 75:1132–1141.

Ball HA, McWhirter L, Ballard C, et al (2020) Functional cognitive disorder: dementia's blind spot. Brain: 143:2895-2903. doi: 10.1093/brain/awaa224.

Aybek S, Perez DL. Diagnosis and management of functional neurological disorder. BMJ. 2022;o64.

Explaining the Diagnosis

Carson A, Lehn A, Ludwig L, Stone J (2016) Explaining functional disorders in the neurology clinic: a photo story. Pract Neurol 16:56–61.

Adams C, Anderson J, Madva EN, LaFrance Jr WC, Perez DL (2018) You’ve made the diagnosis of functional neurological disorder: now what? Pract Neurol 18:323 LP – 330

Stone J, Edwards MJ (2012) Trick or treat? Showing patients with functional (psychogenic) motor symptoms their physical signs. Neurology 79:282–284


Nielsen G, Stone J, Matthews A, et al (2015) Physiotherapy for functional motor disorders: a consensus recommendation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 86:1113–1119.

Occupational Therapy

Nicholson C, Edwards MJ, Carson AJ, et al (2020) Occupational therapy consensus recommendations for functional neurological disorder. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry jnnp-2019-322281.

Royal College of Occupational Therapists (2017) Embracing risk; enabling choice. Guidance for
occupational therapists This is a useful resource to guide clinical reasoning to facilitate supported
risk taking as part of rehabilitation (e.g. engaging in daily activities with less support from others).

Speech & Language Therapy

Baker J, Barnett C, Cavalli L, et al (2021) Management of functional communication, swallowing, cough and related disorders: Consensus recommendations for speech and language therapy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 92:1112–1125


Perez DL, Aybek S, Popkirov S, et al (2020) A Review and Expert Opinion on the Neuropsychiatric Assessment of Motor Functional Neurological Disorders. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci appi.neuropsych.

Treatment Resources

A patient rehabilitation workbook, and other resources for clinicians, produced by FND Australia []

Functional Movement Disorder

Textbook: LaFaver K, Maurer CW, Nicholson T, Perez DL (eds) Functional Movement Disorder:
An interdisciplinary case-based approach. Humana Press 2022.

Evidence for Treatment

Randomised Trials

Goldstein LH, Robinson EJ, Mellers JDC, et al (2020) Cognitive behavioural therapy for adults with dissociative seizures (CODES): a pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Psychiatry 7:491–505.

Jordbru AA, Smedstad LM, Klungsøyr O, Martinsen EW (2014) Psychogenic gait disorder: A randomized controlled trial of physical rehabilitation with one-year follow-up. J Rehabil Med 46:181–187.

Nielsen G, Buszewicz M, Stevenson F, Hunter R, Holt K, Dudziec M, Ricciardi L, Marsden J, Joyce E, Edwards M (2017) Randomised feasibility study of physiotherapy for patients with functional motor symptoms. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 88:484–490.

Cohort Studies

Czarnecki K, Thompson JM, Seime R, Geda YE, Duffy JR, Ahlskog JE (2012) Functional movement disorders: successful treatment with a physical therapy rehabilitation protocol. Park Relat Disord 18:247–251

Demartini B, Batla A, Petrochilos P, Fisher L, Edwards MJ, Joyce E (2014) Multidisciplinary treatment for functional neurological symptoms: a prospective study. J Neurol 261:2370–2377.

Demartini B, Bombieri F, Goeta D, Gambini O, Ricciardi L, Tinazzi M (2020) A physical therapy programme for functional motor symptoms: A telemedicine pilot study. Park Relat Disord 76:108–111

Jacob AE, Kaelin DL, Roach AR, Ziegler CH, LaFaver K (2018) Motor Retraining (MoRe) for Functional Movement Disorders: Outcomes From a 1-Week Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Program. PM R 10:1164–1172.

Maggio JB, Ospina JP, Callahan J, Hunt AL, Stephen CD, Perez DL (2020) Outpatient Physical Therapy for Functional Neurological Disorder: A Preliminary Feasibility and Naturalistic Outcome Study in a U.S. Cohort. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 32:85–89.

McCormack R, Moriarty J, Mellers JD, Shotbolt P, Pastena R, Landes N, Goldstein L, Fleminger S, David AS (2013) Specialist inpatient treatment for severe motor conversion disorder: a retrospective comparative study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 85:895–900.

Petrochilos P, Elmalem MS, Patel D, Louissaint H, Hayward K, Ranu J, Selai C (2020) Outcomes of a 5-week individualised MDT outpatient (day-patient) treatment programme for functional neurological symptom disorder (FNSD). J Neurol 267:2655–2666.

Nielsen G, Ricciardi L, Demartini B, Hunter R, Joyce E, Edwards MJ (2015) Outcomes of a 5-day physiotherapy programme for functional (psychogenic) motor disorders. J Neurol 262:674–81.

Systematic Review (Psychotherapy)

Gutkin M, McLean L, Brown R, Kanaan R (2020) Systematic review of psychotherapy for adults with functional neurological disorder. J Neurol  Neurosurg Psychiatry. Online first. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2019-321926

Outcome Measures

Nicholson T, Carson A, Edwards MJ, et al (2020) Outcome measures for functional neurological (conversion) disorder. A review of the theoretical complexities. J. Neurol. Clin. Neurosci. online first.

Pick S, Anderson DG, Asadi-Pooya AA, et al (2020) Outcome measurement in functional neurological disorder: a systematic review and recommendations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry jnnp-2019-322180.

The Costs of FND

Stephen CD, Fung V, Lungu CI, Espay AJ (2020) Assessment of Emergency Department and Inpatient Use and Costs in Adult and Pediatric Functional Neurological Disorders. JAMA Neurol.

O’Mahony B, Nielsen G, Baxendale S, Edwards MJ, Yogarajah M. Economic Cost of Functional Neurologic Disorders: A Systematic Review. Neurology. 2023;101(2):e202–14. 

Optimal clinical pathway for adults with FND

An exemplar optimal clinical pathway for adults with FND. Produced by the National Neurosciences Advisory Group, together with patient charities and expert clinicians. Link to website.  Link to document.

Interesting Articles in the General Media

Decoding a Disorder at the Interface of Mind and Brain. Scientific American. 1 November 2020.

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